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Egypt History

By years

3200 BC

The United Kingdom of Egypt was born, when the two lands of Upper and Lower Egypt came in one under one king “Narmer-Menes”, and from then through the following three Millennia Kings ruled in successive dynasties (30 in total) down to

Alexander the Great, of ancient Macedonia, conquers Egypt, founds Alexandria.

3200-2700 BC

The Archaic Period (1st and 2nd Dynasties)

Memphis (27 km south-west of Modern Cairo) was founded and became Capital, for the next 1000 years. Kings’ Tombs of the period were in two different sites (Sakkara in the north, and Abydos in the south).

2700-2240 BC

The Old Kingdom (3rd-6th Dynasty)

The age of the pyramids’ builders, who built their tombs in form of pyramids, the first to do was king Zoser who by his Architect Imhotep built the first known pyramid (The Step Pyramid) at Sakkara, many of his successors followed his example and constructed pyramids such as “Senefru”, “Cheops”, “Chephren”, “Mycerinus” and many others.

2240-2050 BC

The First Intermediate Period (7th-10th Dynasty)

Central Government collapsed, the country fell victim to a long dark period of sever civil war, Provincial lords claimed the throne from their respective provinces, finally two houses struggled for sovereignty, (Heracliopolitan and Theban). The Thebans gained Victory.

2050-1780 BC

The Middle Kingdom (11th – 12th Dynasty)

Egypt was re-united by the Theban king “Montu-Hotep-Neb-Hebet-Ra”, Thebes (Modern Luxor) became capital for the 11th dynasty, then power transferred to the 12th dynasty, a new capital was founded at the Entrance of Fayoum (84 km south west of Cairo), Egypt prospered, trade with Byblos and Syria added more wealth to the country.

1780-1570 BC 

The Second Intermediate Period (13TH -14TH Dynasty)

After the death of king Amenmhat III (The Last great Pharaoh of the 12th dynasty, his son ruled for short period then a woman called “Sobek Nefru” then Egypt was ruled by (two weak dynasties (13th and 14th) they ruled from the Delta, did almost nothing except for writing their names on Scarabs or little statues, then Egypt fell to the hands of invaders of Asiatic origins called (the Hyksos) ruled from their newly established Hat-Waeret “Avaris”. Struggle for liberation began, by the Theban Prince “Seqenen-Ra”, the cost was his life, followed by his two sons, he younger “Ahmose” succeeded to expel the Hyksos, and founded Egypt’ New Kingdom started with the 18th dynasty.

1570-1080 BC

The New Kingdom (18th – 20th Dynasty)

Ahmose founded the 18th Dynasty marking a new era, when Egypt became a world power. Under great Pharaohs like Thutmosis I, II, III, IV, and Amenhotep I, II in the 18th Dynasty, Egypt founded a great Empire extending from the Euphrates (North) to the 4th Cataract (northern Sudan of today), great names of the period included Hatscepsut (The Queen who ruled as a man), Amenhotep III, Akhnaten “The Monothiest”, the Boy King Tut-Ankh-Amon, as well as great other Pharaohs like seti I, his Son Ramses II “the great”, and by the 2th dynasty there was Ramses III (the last great Pharaoh, not only of the new kingdom but of Egyp’ ancient History).

1080-660 BC

The Third Intermediate Period (21st – 25th Dynasty)

No more Egypt of the Great Pharaohs, of a great Empire, but the Now, Egypt divided between the powerful Priests of god-Amon in Thebes and a rulin house in the north, then kings of Libyan origins controlled, from the 22nd to 24th, started by Shoshanik (Shishak of the Bible), then struggle led the Kushites “Upper Numbian Kings” to move northwards to liberate Egypt from the Libyan kinglets, and Egypt came o be ruled for the first time/and the last by kings from Kush, whose rule was ended by the Assyrians when conquered Egypt and king “Assurpanipal” put one Necho and then his Son Psmatik as deputy Governors of Egypt.

660-342 BC

The Late Period (26th-30th Dynasty)

The renaissance, is the name given to the reign of the 26th dynasty, especially at its start, Egypt is free again, Psamatik I, ruled for 50 years bringing stability to the country, but opened its gate to Greek Mercenaries, and merchants, a Greek Settlement established in the Delta “the City of Nucratis”, threat came from the East but this time of a new race The Achmenides (not to be called Persian as the term Persians occur a later Period)  after successfully overthrown the Assyrians turned their eyes to Egypt, and in 525 BC, Cambyses invaded Egypt, turned it into an Achmenide Province, represented in history the 27th Dynasty, after many revolts against them, Egypt was free once again and till the 30th Dynasty Egyptian kings ruled, but the Greek influence increased, and the last king of the 30th dynasty defeated by the Persian who ruled for 10 years from 342-332 BC, the year Alexander conquered Egypt, but welcomed by the Egyptians, and then start a new era, during such non Egyptian ruled for over 2000 years till the Revolution of 1952.

332 BC

Alexander Enters Egypt, Crowned as a Pharaoh and in the Temple of Oracle at Siwa was declared Divine and son of Zeus-Amon. Alexandria founded. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC.

305-31 BC

A Macedonian dynasty (The Ptolemies) rules till Cleopatra’s death.

After the death of Alexander, his vast Empire was divided among his generals, Egypt ruled by Alexander’s trusted General Ptolemy (Soter) who founded a dynasty of kings all called Ptolemy (1st -13th ), a period witnessed a stugle for controlling south Syria against the Selucides in the so called Syrian Wars, Egypt came under the influence of a new rising power (Rome), interfered in Egypt’ affairs, to the extent of appointing the Ptolemy. The last ruler was a Queen, Cleopatra VII (The famous Cleopatra), married two powerful Roman Generals one after the other (Julius Caesar, then Mark Anthony), the latter allied with here, lost the Naval Battle of Actium in 31 BC against “Octavian (later Augustus), Cleopatra commits suicide, Egypt became a Roman Province.

Around 40/or 45 AD

Christianity introduced into Egypt by St. Mark, who founded The Coptic Church in Alexandria.

284 AD

Diocletian becomes Emperor, Coptic Church’ Calendar begins in this year, regarding the sever-systematic Persecutions of Egyptian Christians under his reign.

312 AD

Emperor “Constantine” issues the (Edict of Milan) granting toleration and Christianity was recognized as a religion.


Emperor “Theodosius” banned all religions, and Christianity became the state-religion of the Roman Empire.


The Serapeum in Alexandria (Cult center) of the National-god “Serapis destroyed.


Council of “Chalcedon”, Egyptian Coptic Church split from the body of the Western Church, becomes an independent Church (The Coptic Orthodox Church).


Arab Muslims, conquers Egypt, Egypt becomes Islamic-Province under the Caliphate in Medina (2nd sacred city after Mecca in Arabia).


Egypt becomes an Ummayyad Prvince(Ummayyadds ruled from Damascus)


Ummayyad’ Caliph “Marwan II” killed by th Abbasside Army, Egypt becomes an Abbaside Province (who ruled from Baghdad).


“Ahmed Ibn Tulun” appointed governor of Egypt by the Abbaside Caliph in Baghdad, shortly after declared himself independent and founded a new dynasty (The Tulunids).


“Mohamed Ibn Tughig- called the Ikhshid” appointed governor of Egypt, and the Ikhsids dynasty ruled for the next 34 years.


The Fatimid army invaded Egypt under the command of “Gawhar IL Sikili” and the Fatimid (the only Shii Islamic Dynasty to rule Egypt). The city of Cairo founded as a royal Quarter.


The Fatimid Caliph “AL-Muezz-LI-Din-ALLAH” transfers the Fatimid Caliphate from (Northern-Africa “Modern Tunisia”) to Egypt, and the Fatimids ruled till the death of the last Caliph “AL-Adid”.


Egypt restored to Sunni Islam by “Saladin” who founded a new dynasty (The Ayyubids), a period witnessed the struggle against the Crusaders who Established themselves in different kingdoms in Syraia and Palestine, above them all Jerusalem.


Saladin armies defeated the Crusaders in battle “Hattin”, Jerusalem taken after a rief siege.


“AL-Adel”, Saladin’s brother becomes Ayyubid Sultan, recognized by the Abbasside Caliph in Baghdad, construction of the Citadel in Cairo continues.


Death of “AL-Adil” and his son “AL-Kamel” succeeds him, and the Citadel taken as seat of power (in fact till 1863).


Crusaders under the French king “Louis IX” attacked Egypt, defeated in the battle of “AL-Mansoura”, death of the Ayyubid Sultan “AL-Salih-Najm-IL-Din”, his widow “Shajar-IL-Durr” calls for his son to succeed, being Murdered, The Widow ruled for a brief period, unacceptable in a Muslim Society, she had to get married of the Mameluk General Aybak, who later murdered by her before she also killed by the hands of the guardians following the orders of his first wife.


The Ayyubid dynasty rule was ended and followed by the Mameluks (Mercenaries brought from Asia Minor and Elswhere to serve the Sultan Army) for the next three centuries.


Mongol troops under Hulagu, attacked and destroyed Baghdad, Abbasside Caliphate in Baghdad ended.


The Mameluk armies under the New Sultan “Qutuz” defeated the Mongols in battle “Ain Galut”, soon after “Qutuz” was assassinated, and “Bybars” became Sultan till he died in 1279. His reign witnessed prosperity and stability.


“Baraka-Khan”, Bybars’ son succeeded for short time, then “Qalauun” took over, and the rule of Egypt lasted for a century in his dynasty. Great Monumental Complexes (Mosques and Other buildings) built during his reign, and above them all the (Madrasa Mosque) of his grandson Sultan “Hassan”.


Ottoman Turks succeeded in conquering Constantinople, ending the long-rule Byzantine Empire.


Ottoman Armies under the command of “Selim” into Syria, meet the Mameluk armies under the Command of Sultan “AL-Ghuri”, at (Marj-Dabiq), the Sultan killed, the Mamelukes defeated, the Ottomans Kept Marching towards Egypt.


The Mameluks under “Toman-Bey” – The Last Sultan, defeated and Egypt became an Ottoman Province.


French Military Expedition under Bonaparte invaded Egypt, remained there for the next three years, facing revolts of the Egyptians, and different forces, including the Ottomans, the British, and the Mameluke Beys. Surrendered and left Egypt in 1801.


Ottoman Albanian commander Muhammad Ali becomes (Pascha/Governor) and founds a dynasty that rules until 1952 (King Farouk I), although nominally part of the Ottoman Empire.


The Suez Canal is inaugurated under Khedive “Ismael”  but his projects to modernize Egypt, led the country to bankruptcy resulted in Biennial Finance-Control of Egypt by The British and The French.


Egyptian Coastal City of Alexandria was bombarded by the British fleet, opening the way to a British occupation lasted for 74 years, despite the fact Egypt was not reduced to the status of a Colony.


A nation in revolt, against the British, S.Zaghloul became the National Patriot, and the prominent Political figure nation-wide.


Egypt, nominally gained independence, although British influence remains significant, until mid-1950s. Fouad I become King of Egypt, after previously nominated as Sultan.


Allied Arab Armies, mostly from (Egypt, Iraq, Jordan and Syria) launched attack against the newly established state of Israel.


(The Free Officers) launch a revolution against the king and his regime, Republic declared soon after and Gen. Mohamed Naguieb becomes the first presient, to be in power for short till Nasser was in power in 1956 when chosen president. Aswan High Dam Project financially rejected by the International Bank, led Nasser to nationalize the Suez Canal to benefit from its revenue.


Allied forces from Britain, France and Israel invaded Egypt at the Region of Suez Canal over nationalization of Suez Canal, but withdraw under American and Soviet Pressures and threat.


Nasser died followed by Anwar Sadat, one of the previous free officers (but stands little away in shade till appointed Vice President by Nasser).


Egypt Launched an attack across the Suez Canal, regaining the East Bank of the Canal took, 6 years earlier in the 6 days war.


President Anwar Sadat makes peace with Israel.


President Sadat is assassinated by Islamist extremists (known as Jihad Militant Group).


Hosni Mubarak, becomes president, ruling Egypt as long as 30 years (the only president remains in power for so long).


The so called, Arab Spring popular uprising topples President Hosni Mubarak after 30 years in power.


President Abdel Fattah IL Sisi elected President, won a Second Term in 2019.